BAC Tracker combines several published methods for calculating alcohol absorption, distribution, and elimination to provide an accurate, unbiased, and comprehensive BAC profile for any scenario. The calculations made by BAC Tracker software are based on the following scientifically peer-reviewed and published articles.


Uemura, K., Fujimiya, T., Ohbora, Y., Yashuhara, M. and Yoshida, K. (2005) Individual Differences In the Kinetics of Alcohol Absorption and Elimination. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology. 1:24-27.


Widmark, EMP (1932) Die theoretischen Grundlagen und the praktische Verwendbarkeit der gerichtlich-medizinnischen Alkoholbestimmung, Berlin. Urban Schwarzenberg.

Watson, P.E., Watson, I.D., and Batt, R.D. (1981) Prediction of Blood Alcohol Concentrations in Human Subjects: Updating the Widmark Equation. Journal of the Studies on Alcohol.42: 547-556.

Forrest, A.R.W. (1986) The Estimation of Widmark’s Factor. J. of Forensic Science Society. 26(4): 249-252.

Ulrich, L., Cramer, Y., and Zink, P. (1987) Calculation of Blood Alcohol Values From Alcohol Intake Using Individual Parameters. Blutalkohol 24: 192-8.

Seidl, S., Jenson, U., and Alt, A. (2000) The Calculation of Blood Ethanol Concentrations in Males and Females. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 114: 74-77.

Posey, D. and Mozayani, A. (2007) The Estimation of Blood Alcohol, Widmark Revisited. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology. 3: 33-39.


Jones, A.W. (2010) Evidence-Based Survey of the Elimination Rates of Ethanol From Blood With Applications in Forensic Casework. Forensic Science International. 200: 1-20.
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